Appraising Risks: Patterns of Major Socio-Economic Risk and Risk Projection in the Indian Ocean World

Kurzmitteilung

Appraising Risks: Patterns of Major Socio-Economic Risk and Risk Projection in the Indian Ocean World

Prof. Dr. Angela Schottenhammer is part of a multi-disciplinary, international team of scholars under the directorship of Professor Gwyn Campbell of McGill University that has been awarded a $2.5 million partnership grant funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC) to investigate six periods of historical and contemporary environmental (e.g. climate change, volcanism, monsoons, cyclones, drought) and human (e.g. famine, disease, conflict, migration) crisis, in order to elucidate past-to-to-present patterns that will help inform current and future risk preparedness and socio-human responses to environmental crises and disasters.

The Indian Ocean world (IOW), a macro-region stretching from Africa to China, is a significant global socio-ecological system. Factors such as climate change, the monsoon system, El Niño Southern Oscillation, and volcanism, have profoundly affected its history. Moreover, it contains 17 of the 20 countries most at risk from global warming and associated rising sea levels, and increasing frequency and intensity of drought, famine, conflict over scarce natural resources, and human migration.

This research project applies a conceptual-analytical methodology designed to bridge the boundaries between social and natural sciences. Adopting Fernand Braudel’s view that conventional frameworks of historical analysis are inadequate as analytical tools because they largely ignore both environmental factors and natural cycles and related temporal spans, project members will interrogate, on macro and micro levels, the relationship between clusters of unfavourable environmental events and adverse historical tipping points.

Schottenhammer will lead one of eight teams in the project. Her team, which focuses on the eastern section of the Indian ocean world (IOW), includes Dr. Mathieu Torck and Wim De Winter, M.A. (both Ghent University, Belgium), Dr. Ma Guang (Shandong University, PRChina), Dr. Kimura Jun (Tokai University, Japan), Xu Zhexin (Salzburg University, Austria), Dr. Li Man (Vasco Da Gama European Institute of Diplomacy and International Relations, Belgium), Dr. Alexander Jost (European Centre for Chinese Studies, Peking University, PRChina; Salzburg University, Austria), Prof. Dr. Tansen Sen and Dr. Elke Papelitzky (both NYU Shanghai). Her team will recruit a number of PhD and postgraduate student (including habilitation) to write their thesis on issues related to the impacts in the eastern IOW of the six periods of environmental crisis and human reactions to them.

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Selection of recent most important publications

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Selection of recent most important publications

–  “The Song 宋 Dynasty (960–1279) – A Revolutionary Era Turn?”, in Kósa Gábor (ed.), China across the Centuries [Budapest Monographs in East Asian Studies] (Budapest: ELTE University, Department of East Asian Languages, 2017), 133-173.

– “China’s Gate to the South: Iranian and Arab Merchant Networks in Guangzhou During the Tang-Song Transition (c.750–1050), PART II: 900–c.1050”, AAS Working Papers in Social Anthropology/ÖAW Arbeitspapiere zur Sozialanthropologie 29 (2015), 1-30.

–  “The Emergence of China as a Maritime Power”, chapter 7 of vol. 5 of The Cambridge History of China, vol. 5, part Two, The Five Dynasties and Sung China, 960–1279, ed. by John W. Chaffee und Paul J. Smith (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014), 437-525.

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Most important publications – Ming Qing Studies

Kurzmitteilung

Most important publications

– “Trans-Pacific Connections: Contraband Mercury Trade in 16th to early 18th Centuries”, in Tamara Bentley (ed.), Picturing Commerce: Picturing commerce in and from the East Asian maritime circuits, 1550-1800 [Visual and Material Culture, 1300–1700] (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2019), 159-194.

–“16-18 seiki ni okeru taiheiyō o matagu suigin no mitsu bōeki” アンゲラ・ショッテンハマー著、「16-18世紀における太平洋を跨ぐ水銀の密貿易」, transl. by Hideaki Suzuki 鈴木英明, in Hideaki Suzuki 鈴木英明編訳 (ed.) Nettowaku to kaiiki: Higashi Ajia kara yūbō suru sekaishi 『ネットワークと海域―東アジアから眺望する世界史』(Akashi shoten, 2019), 230-264.

–  “Sinologie und Globalität. Praktische Erfahrungen vom 17./18. Jahrhundert bis heute, in Angela Schottenhammer, Franz Gmainer-Pranzl (Hrsg.), Wissenschaft und globales Denken [Salzburger interdisziplinäre Diskurse] (Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2016), 35-54.

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Sui Tang Studies 隋唐史研究

Kurzmitteilung

Ceramics fired at the Tang period Changsha 長沙 kilns in Hunan, discovered on the Belitung wreck, an Arabo-Indian ship wrecked off Belitung Island in about 826 CE and carrying cargo seemingly bound for Western Asia.

Publications

– “Die zunehmende Einbindung Chinas in die Welt des Indischen Ozeans bis zum Beginn der Song-Dynastie: Seewege, Verbindungen und Handel”, in Raimund Schulz (Hrsg.), Die Überwindung von Zeit und Raum, Sonderband der Historischen Zeitschrift (Oldenburg: De Gruyter Verlag, 2019), 139-173.

– “Buddhismus als Mittel der Herrschaftslegitimation unter Wu Zetian 武則天 (624–705; reg. 690–705), der einzigen Frau der chinesischen Geschichte mit dem Kaisertitel” (Buddhism as a Means for the Legitimation of the Rule of Wu Zetian (r. 690–705), the Only Woman in Chinese History on the Imperial Throne), in Arno Strohmeyer (Hrsg.), Historische und systematische Fallstudien in Religion und Politik vom Mittelalter bis ins 21. Jahrhundert [Salzburger Interdisziplinäre Diskurse, 9] (Wien: Peter Lang, 2017), 69-94.

– “China’s Gate to the Indian Ocean – Iranian and Arab Long-distance Traders”, Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 76:1 (2016), 135-179.

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Huihui yaofang 回回藥方

Kurzmitteilung

An Encyclopedia of Arabic Hospital Medicine from Mongol China: Translation and Interpretation

By Paul D. Buell and Eugene N. Anderson

Introduction

Few documents express an era and an overlap of cultures in the way that the present text does. It is based in the Arabic Medicine of the Middle Ages, but is in Chinese even if including short descriptions in Arabic script. It also, as will be evident below, is a text that is not just purely Arabic Medicine but one in which Arabic Medicine has become assimilated to a Chinese environment which itself is already assimilated. Our present text is also in its medicinals and formulae indicative of a massively-extended environment in which all kinds of medicinals were traded and used over expansive spaces and associated with complex networks focused over land and sea.
Above all, the Huihui yaofang (HHYF), “Muslim Medicinal Recipes,” or perhaps better, medicinal recipes of “western medicine,” as will be seen from a detailed analysis of its contents had best be thought of as a product of the Mongol Age even if the present text is Ming. The Mongol era was a time of unprecedented cultural exchange, we have only to remember figures such as Marco Polo and Rabban Sauma, who went the other way, to Europe, to gain a grasp of what went on.

The name HHYF now applies to the 15% that survives of a once 3200 page Arabic-medicine hospital manual of a type known from Cairo, for example, and other places in the Islamic medical world. It was compiled in its present form between 1398 and 1408 but certainly based upon a version from the Mongol Yuan 元 Dynasty that is probably to be associated with a Syrian medical family resident in China. The text itself may have been based on a translation of a Persian-language work, or several such texts, although the present HHYF shows an effort to integrate Chinese and Arabic medical ideas and is much more than just a translation. Whoever was involved, they probably included not only Syrians but Turkic-speakers as is shown by the forms of the Chinese transcriptions of words and terms added tp the Arabic-script entries.

The original work was in 36 chapters (juan 卷) plus two tables of contents of which three content chapters (juan 12, 30, 34) survive along with the table of contents for the second half of the encyclopedia. This means, that with juan 12 from the first part we have precise details about the contents of more than half the book (in this case 20 juan). Internal cross-references provide addition indications of what there once was, including a separate, detailed discussion of specific materia medica and a discussion of the types of doses called from in the text.

Each of the three content chapters is organized around one or more disease categories. The largest is the detailed discussion of “wind” (feng 風 or feng 瘋) ailments, a completely Chinese concept but transferrable, with various subcategories. It occupies all of juan 12, Similar is the section on “various symptoms,” which occupies all juan 30. By contrast, Juan 34 is comprised of shorter discussions of wounds from metal objects, of broken bones, including a highly interesting section on head wounds and skull fractures, the practice of cauterization, scalds and burns, wounds from blows, and bites, called by the text the most dangerous kind of wound since the mouth is so dirty.

Supporting recipes and the accompanying theory discussions presented in the chapters are numerous quotations from the various Arabic medical authorities. These include, and this is unique for East Asia, as noted, Zhalinuxi 扎里奴思 (i.e. Galen[os]), but also, among others, Rufus of Ephesus, Paul of Aegina, Hippocrates, Aristotle, Alexander the Great, and, of course, the great purely Arabic authorities such as Ibn Sīnā whose work was increasingly important at about the time that the HHYF was being written and used. The HHYF, although in Chinese, is unique, as noted also, in its Arabic-script entries for the names of medicinals and for key terminology. These are not just given in Arabic-script but are also provided in Chinese transliteration entries as read by informants, in this case, judging by the pronunciation employed for primarily Persian-language texts, Turkic informants with a heavily palatalized pronunciation of the original standard Persian and Arabic.

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Yuan Studies 元史研究

Recovery of Traditional Technologies: A Comparative Study of Past and Present Fermentation and Associated distillation Technologies in Eurasia and their Roots

Special issue of Crossroads – Studies on the History of Exchange Relations in the East Asian World


The Huihui yaofang 回回藥方: An Encyclopedia of Arabic Hospital Medicine from Mongol China


China’s Maritime Commerce and Naval Activities in Northeast Asia during the “Yuan-Ming Rupture”

PhD project sponsored by Ghent University, Belgium (2012-2016)


“Huihui Medicine and Medicinal Drugs in Yuan China”, paper presented on the International Workshop “Eurasian Influences on Yuan China: Cross-cultural Transmissions in the 13th and 14th centuries”; Binghamton University, Downtown Centre Campus, 20.-21.11.2009, Binghamton, NY, USA (sponsored by the Chiang-Ching-Kuo Foundation, Taipei)


Publications

  • Recovery of Traditional Technologies I: A Comparative Study of Past and Present Fermentation and Associated Distillation Technologies in Eurasia and Their Roots, Crossroads – Studies on the History of Exchange Relations in the East Asian World 14 (2016), 1-

Book chapters:

  • “Huihui Medicine and Medicinal Drugs in Yuan China”, in Proceedings of the International Workshop Eurasian Influences on Yuan China: Cross-cultural transmissions in the 13th and 14th centuries (Singapore: NUS Press, 2013), chpt. 4, 75-102.
  • „Westasiatisch-muslimische (Huihui 回回) Medizin und Ärzte im yuanzeitlichen China (13./14. Jh.)“, in Michael Borgolte, Matthias Tischler (Hrsg.), Migration als transkulturelle Verflechtung im mittelalterlichen Jahrtausend. Europa, Ostasien und Afrika im Vergleich (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft 2012), 34-53.
  • „Vom mongolischen Teilreich zum neuen Reich der Mitte“, in Thomas Ertl (Hrsg.), Die Welt, 1250 bis 1500 (The World 1250 to 1500) (Essen: Magnusverlag 2009),  355382. Globalgeschichte. Die Welt 1000–2000 (Global History. The World 1000–2000).

Ming Qing Studies 明清研究

„The East Asian ‚Mediterranean‘, c. 1500-1800:
A New Quality in the Development of its Neighbouring Countries

www.eamh.net

Research project has been sponsored by the VW-Foundation, May 2002 – July 2009
(see also under „projects“)


Equine Medicine and Surgery – A Chinese Manuscript from 1824 (Daoguang 4)

馬往書 by 苗集澤

馬往書 by 苗集澤

馬往書 by 苗集澤


Monograph/Handbook project:

China’s Administration of Maritime Trade: From the Maritime Trade Office (shibo si) to the Customs House (haiguan). [This monograph is designed as a handbook for China’s maritime trade administration during the Ming and Qing Dynasties, including extensive lists of persons in office]

Recent Publications

  • “Brokers and “Guild” (huiguan 會館) Organizations in the Sino-Japanese Copper Trade during the Qing Dynasties”, in Billy So Kee Long et al. (ed.), 明清時期江南市場經濟的空間、制度與網絡 The Market Economy of the Lower Yangzi Delta in Late Imperial China: Space, Institutions and Networks. (London: Routledge, 2012), chapter 9, pp. XXX.
  • Angela Schottenhammer (ed.), Taiwan – A Bridge Between the East and the South China Sea. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz 2011. East Asian Maritime History, 11. 129 pages.
  • “帝国与边缘:1644年至19世纪清朝与日本及琉球关系比较研究“ (Empire and Periphery: The Qing Empire’s Relation with Japan and the Ryuyks (1644-1800): A Comparison), Haiyangshi yanjiu 海洋史研究 = Studies of Maritime History 2 (2011), pp. 226-245.

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Crossroads Research Centre

Hervorgehoben

History of Interaction in the East Asian, Eurasian, Indian Ocean & Asia-Pacific Worlds

This research focus investigates on the variety of interactions, communication and exchange relations in the macro-region of Eurasia, East Asia, the Asia-Pacific and Indian Ocean Worlds across both land and sea routes. Major emphasis will be placed on the transfer of science and technologies, commodity and product exchange, trade, cultural aspects in their widest interpretation, religions, as well as migration and the organisation and functioning of networks.

We will analyse continental and maritime exchange and transfer of knowledge, ideas, products and people, including forms of migration. To this end, we will particularly investigate forms of interaction that have been important in both the past and the present, such as military (including geographical knowledge as portrayed in maps; weapons, horses, or provisions); medical knowledge and medicinal products, including diseases; aspects of culture (such as food, music) and religion (such as Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam); and historical naval enterprises and maritime commerce.

A milestone of our research lies in the parallel comparative analysis of both archaeological and textual evidence and a cross-cultural inter-disciplinary approach. The use of a wide range of sources from archaeological findings to texts, documents, and pictorial material, to linguistic evidence, will be a hallmark of the approach.

Recent Publications

  • “Introductory Remarks: What is the ‘Indo-Pacific’?”, The ‘Indo-Pacific’ Crossroads: The Asian Waters as Conduits of Knowledge, People, Cargoes, and Technologies – special issue of Crossroads – Studies on the History of Exchange Relations in the East Asian World 16 (2017), 83-97.
  • “The Maritime Relations between the Indian Ocean and the China Sea in the Middle Ages”, in The Sea in History, ed. Christian Buchet, vol. 2, The Medieval World, ed. Michel Balard (Boydell & Brewer, 2017), 794-806.
  • “War and Peace along the Historical Silk Roads”, in Wen Versus Wu. Streit und Streitschlichtung, Krieg und Frieden in der chinesischen Tradition und Gegenwart Harmonie im Zeichen der Neuen Seidenstraße (Wien: 2016), 21-39.

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Tomb Inscriptions 墓誌銘

Cover of the tomb inscription of the Wudai military governor (jiedushi 節度使) Wang Chuzhi 王處直 (863-923).

Cover of the tomb inscription of the Wudai military governor (jiedushi 節度使) Wang Chuzhi 王處直 (863-923).

An Introduction

There are many explanations for the emergence and the causes of writing tomb inscriptions (muzhiming).
One comes from the Ming period scholar Xu Shiceng 徐師曾
(Jinshi 1553; c. 1530-1594). He explains muzhiming as follows (German translation):

Zhi 誌 bedeutet ’schriftlich aufzeichnen‘ (ji 記); ming 銘 bedeutet ‚bekanntmachen‘. Wenn die Leute im Altertum Tugendhaftigkeit und Verdienste (eines Menschen) nachfolgenden Generationen bekanntgeben wollten, gossen dessen Nachkommen metallene Gefäße (zhuqi 鑄器), um dies bis in alle Ewigkeit weiterzuüberliefern, ähnlich, wie es bei der Opfergefäßinschrift (dingming 鼎銘) des Herrn Zhu Shu 朱叔 mit dem Beinamen Mu 穆 der Fall ist, die in den Gesammelten Werken des Herrn Cai Zhonglang 蔡中郎 mit dem Beinamen Yong 邕 (i.e. Cai Yong 蔡邕) abgedruckt ist. In der Han-Zeit begann Du Zixia 杜子夏 (i.e. spätere Westliche Han-Zeit) damit, einen Text einzumeißeln (le wen 勒文) und ihn neben dem Grab zu vergraben (mai muce 埋墓側). Daraufhin gab es Grabinschriften (muzhi 墓誌), spätere Generationen folgten (dieser Tradition).“

Tomb inscription of the Wudai military governor (jiedushi 節度使) Wang Chuzhi 王處直 (863-923); the original is kept by the Hebeisheng wenwu yanjiusuo 河北省文物研究所, Shijiazhuang 石家莊.

Tomb inscription of the Wudai military governor (jiedushi 節度使) Wang Chuzhi 王處直 (863-923); the original is kept by the Hebeisheng wenwu yanjiusuo 河北省文物研究所, Shijiazhuang 石家莊.

Publications

  • „A Buried Past: Tomb Inscriptions (muzhiming) as a Form of Private Historiography – an Example from the Early Tenth Century”, JESHO (2009), special issue from an AAS panel 2007
  • „Wang Chuzhi muzhiming zaikao – guanyu Wudai jiedushi jieji li de yixie daode ji yishi xingtai qushi 王處直墓誌銘的再考察——關於五代節度使階级裡的一些道德及意識形態趨势”, Zhonghua wenshi luncong 中華文史論叢 4 (2006), pp. 158–177.
  • „Bohimei kenkyū ni okeru sekkoku no jūyōsei 墓誌銘研究における石刻の重要性”, in Hiseki wa kataru 碑石は語る. (Tōkyō: Bensei shuppansha, 2006), pp. 82–93. アジア遊学Intriguing Asia, no 91.

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Economy, Science & Technology

Copperplate for the fabrication of Huizi papernotes

Copperplate for the fabrication of Huizi papernotes

An Introduction

„(隆興) 二 (1164) 年七月二十五日臣僚言熙寧初創立市舶一司所以來遠人 通物貨也舊法抽解既有定數又寬期納稅使之待價此招致之方也邇來州郡官吏趣辦抽解之外又多名色兼迫其輸納貨滯則減價求售所得無幾恐商旅自此不行欲望戒敕州郡推明神宗皇帝立法之意使商賈懋遷以助國用從之繼而戶部欲行廣南福建兩浙路轉運司並市舶司鈐束所屬州縣場務遵守見行條法施行…“

(Song huiyao jigao 宋會要輯稿 (Draft of documents pertaining to matters of state in the Song dynasty) by Xu Song 徐松 (1781–1848) et al. (comp.). Taibei: Shijie shuju 1964. Zhiguan 44/27a).

„This emperor [of Cathay] may dispend as much as he will without estimation; for he not dispendeth ne maketh no money but of leather imprinted or of paper. And of that money is some of greater price and some of less price, after the diversity of his statutes. And when that money hath run long that it beginneth to waste, then men bear it to the emperor’s treasury and then they take new money for the old. And that money goeth throughout all the country and throughout all his provinces, for there and beyond them they make no money neither of gold nor of silver; and therefore he may dispend enough, and outrageously. And of gold and silver that men bear in his country he maketh cylours, pillars and pavements in his palace, and other diverse things what him liketh.“

(The Travels of Sir John Mandeville by Sir John Mandeville (1300-1399?), chapt. XXV)

Northern Song bronze coins

Northern Song bronze coins

Publications

  • “Chūgoku keizaishi no kenkyū ni okeru kahei to kahei seisaku: futatsu no jiri to sore ni kansuru kenkai 中国経済史の研究における貨幣と貨幣政策: 二つの事例とそれに関する見解” (Money and monetary policy in the study of Chinese economic history: Two examples and some related observations), in Ihara Hiroshi (ed.), 『宋銭の世界』[The World of Song Money] (Tōkyō: Bensei shuppansha, 2009), 219-250.
  • „Die finanzpolitische Bezugnahme des songzeitlichen Staates (960 – ca. 1100) auf den Reichtum seiner Gesellschaft – unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Reformperiode unter Wang Anshi“ (The Finance Political Reference of the Song Government to the Wealth of its Society, under Particular Consideration of the Reform Period under Wang Anshi), Oriens Extremus 44 (2003/04), S. 179–210.
  • „Hainans politische und ökonomische Anbindung an das Festland während der Song–Dynastie“ (Hainan’s Political and Economic Relation with the Chinese Mainland during the Song Dynasty), Roderich Ptak, Claudine Salmon (Hrsg.), De la Chine à l’Asie du Sud-Est / Von China nach Südostasien (Konferenzband) (Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 2001), 35-81.

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Culture, Ideology, State & Society

Playing music - Liao dynasty

Playing music – Liao dynasty

  • “The Song 宋 Dynasty (960–1279) – A Revolutionary Era Turn?”, in Kósa Gábor (ed.), China across the Centuries [Budapest Monographs in East Asian Studies] (Budapest: ELTE University, Department of East Asian Languages, 2017), 133-173.
  • Vom mongolischen Teilreich zum neuen Reich der Mitte”, in Thomas Ertl (Hrsg.), Die Welt, 1250 bis 1500. Essen: Magnusverlag 2009, 25 pages. Globalgeschichte. Die Welt 1000–2000.
  • „Kriege und Barbaren im China des späten 8. bis frühen 10. Jahrhunderts“, in Thomas Kolnberger, Ilja Steffelbauer et al. , Krieg und Akkulturation. Wien: Mandelbaum Verlag 2004. S. 64–84.

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Reviews

  • Hugh R. Clark, Portrait of a Community. Society, Culture, and the Structures of Kinship in the Mulan River Valley (Fujian) from the Late Tang through the Song, xiv, 473 pp. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press, 2007, in Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, SOAS (2008), 3 pages.
  • Christian Lamouroux, Fiscalité, Comptes Publics et Politiques Financière dans la Chine des Song. Le Chapitre 179 du Songshi. Paris: Collège de France 2003. Institut des Hautes Études Chinoises, in Oriens Extremus (2003/04), S. 275-279.
  • Herbert Franke, Krieg und Krieger im chinesischen Mittelalter (12. bis 14. Jahrhundert). Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag 2002. Münchener Ostasiatische Studien, Bd. 81, in Oriens Extremus (2003/04), S. 279–281.

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