Crossroads Research Centre – History of Interaction in the East Asian, Eurasian, Indian Ocean & Asia-Pacific Worlds
This research focus investigates on the variety of interactions, communication and exchange relations in the macro-region of Eurasia, East Asia, the Asia-Pacific and Indian Ocean Worlds across both land and sea routes. Major emphasis will be placed on the transfer of science and technologies, commodity and product exchange, trade, cultural aspects in their widest interpretation, religions, as well as migration and the organisation and functioning of networks.
We will analyse continental and maritime exchange and transfer of knowledge, ideas, products and people, including forms of migration. To this end, we will particularly investigate forms of interaction that have been important in both the past and the present, such as military (including geographical knowledge as portrayed in maps; weapons, horses, or provisions); medical knowledge and medicinal products, including diseases; aspects of culture (such as food, music) and religion (such as Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam); and historical naval enterprises and maritime commerce.
A milestone of our research lies in the parallel comparative analysis of both archaeological and textual evidence and a cross-cultural inter-disciplinary approach. The use of a wide range of sources from archaeological findings to texts, documents, and pictorial material, to linguistic evidence, will be a hallmark of the approach. Weiterlesen
The East Asian ‚Mediterranean‘, c. 1500-1800:
A New Quality in the Development of its Neighbouring Countries
Research project has been sponsored by the VW-Foundation, May 2002 – July 2009 Weiterlesen
Maritime Knowledge for China Seas
(Joint project of the École Française d’Éxtrȇme Orient, France, and the Academia Sinica, Taibei)
In an era where Chinese naval presence in Asian Seas is increasingly discussed and even disputed, it seems important to reconsider and review our knowledge on China’s seafaring tradition. With focus paid to the practical know-how that was available to the craftsmen, seamen and merchants during the xvith-xviiith centuries, as well as the special emphasis on sailing and trading knowledge, this current project proposes a new approach for analysing Chinese maritime history. Weiterlesen
Recovery of Traditional Technologies I: A Comparative Study of Past and Present Fermentation and Associated Distillation Technologies in Eurasia and Their Roots
January 2015 – July 2016
The aim of this project is to research traditional food processing techniques and technologies in Mongolia, Taiwan, Turkey, Japan, Korea and Mexico. This will include as an area of particular emphasis the production of fermented and distilled beverages. Weiterlesen
Frontiers of History in China
This is an English journal called „Frontiers of History in China: Selected Publications from Chinese Universities“, which is co-published by the Springer Company in Germany and the Higher Education Press in China. We select high quality articles from Chinese universities written in Chinese and translate them into English in order to make them acessible to a wider readership worldwide.
The Importance of Stone Inscriptions for the Study of Tomb Inscriptions (muzhiming 墓誌銘)
Higashi Ajia no kaiiku kōryū to Nihon dentō bunka no keisei
This research was part of an interdisciplinary research project based at Tōkyō University, Faculty of Humanities (人文社會系研究科), Japan (Prof. Dr. Kojima Tsuyoshi 小島毅):
„Higashi Ajia no kaiiku kōryū to Nihon dentō bunka no keisei 東アジアの海域 交流と日本傳統文化の形成“, and focused on late Tang, Wudai, and Song stone inscriptions. Weiterlesen
Journal of Marine and Island Cultures (JMIC)
Editor-in-Chief: Seok-Joon HONG (Mokpo National University, Korea), Gloria PUNGETTI (University of Cambridge, UK)
Associate Editors-in-Chief: Sun-Kee HONG (MIC, Mokpo National University, Korea), Takakazu YUMOTO (Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Japan), Singgih Tri SULISTIYONO (Indonesia), Jala MAKHZOUMI (American University of Beirut, Lebanon), Oliver RACKHAM (University of Cambridge, UK), Angela SCHOTTENHAMMER (University of Salzburg, Austria) Weiterlesen
Cover of the tomb inscription of the Wudai military governor (jiedushi 節度使) Wang Chuzhi 王處直 (863-923).
There are many explanations for the emergence and the causes of writing tomb inscriptions (muzhiming).
One comes from the Ming period scholar Xu Shiceng 徐師曾
(Jinshi 1553; c. 1530-1594). He explains muzhiming as follows (German translation):
„Zhi 誌 bedeutet ’schriftlich aufzeichnen‘ (ji 記); ming 銘 bedeutet ‚bekanntmachen‘. Wenn die Leute im Altertum Tugendhaftigkeit und Verdienste (eines Menschen) nachfolgenden Generationen bekanntgeben wollten, gossen dessen Nachkommen metallene Gefäße (zhuqi 鑄器), um dies bis in alle Ewigkeit weiterzuüberliefern, ähnlich, wie es bei der Opfergefäßinschrift (dingming 鼎銘) des Herrn Zhu Shu 朱叔 mit dem Beinamen Mu 穆 der Fall ist, die in den Gesammelten Werken des Herrn Cai Zhonglang 蔡中郎 mit dem Beinamen Yong 邕 (i.e. Cai Yong 蔡邕) abgedruckt ist. In der Han-Zeit begann Du Zixia 杜子夏 (i.e. spätere Westliche Han-Zeit) damit, einen Text einzumeißeln (le wen 勒文) und ihn neben dem Grab zu vergraben (mai muce 埋墓側). Daraufhin gab es Grabinschriften (muzhi 墓誌), spätere Generationen folgten (dieser Tradition).“
Tomb inscription of the Wudai military governor (jiedushi 節度使) Wang Chuzhi 王處直 (863-923); the original is kept by the Hebeisheng wenwu yanjiusuo 河北省文物研究所, Shijiazhuang 石家莊.
Copperplate for the fabrication of Huizi papernotes
„(隆興) 二 (1164) 年七月二十五日臣僚言熙寧初創立市舶一司所以來遠人 通物貨也舊法抽解既有定數又寬期納稅使之待價此招致之方也邇來州郡官吏趣辦抽解之外又多名色兼迫其輸納貨滯則減價求售所得無幾恐商旅自此不行欲望戒敕州郡推明神宗皇帝立法之意使商賈懋遷以助國用從之繼而戶部欲行廣南福建兩浙路轉運司並市舶司鈐束所屬州縣場務遵守見行條法施行…“
(Song huiyao jigao 宋會要輯稿 (Draft of documents pertaining to matters of state in the Song dynasty) by Xu Song 徐松 (1781–1848) et al. (comp.). Taibei: Shijie shuju 1964. Zhiguan 44/27a).
„This emperor [of Cathay] may dispend as much as he will without estimation; for he not dispendeth ne maketh no money but of leather imprinted or of paper. And of that money is some of greater price and some of less price, after the diversity of his statutes. And when that money hath run long that it beginneth to waste, then men bear it to the emperor’s treasury and then they take new money for the old. And that money goeth throughout all the country and throughout all his provinces, for there and beyond them they make no money neither of gold nor of silver; and therefore he may dispend enough, and outrageously. And of gold and silver that men bear in his country he maketh cylours, pillars and pavements in his palace, and other diverse things what him liketh.“
(The Travels of Sir John Mandeville by Sir John Mandeville (1300-1399?), chapt. XXV)
Northern Song bronze coins