Economy, Science & Technology

Copperplate for the fabrication of Huizi papernotes

Copperplate for the fabrication of Huizi papernotes

An Introduction

“(隆興) 二 (1164) 年七月二十五日臣僚言熙寧初創立市舶一司所以來遠人 通物貨也舊法抽解既有定數又寬期納稅使之待價此招致之方也邇來州郡官吏趣辦抽解之外又多名色兼迫其輸納貨滯則減價求售所得無幾恐商旅自此不行欲望戒敕州郡推明神宗皇帝立法之意使商賈懋遷以助國用從之繼而戶部欲行廣南福建兩浙路轉運司並市舶司鈐束所屬州縣場務遵守見行條法施行…”

(Song huiyao jigao 宋會要輯稿 (Draft of documents pertaining to matters of state in the Song dynasty) by Xu Song 徐松 (1781–1848) et al. (comp.). Taibei: Shijie shuju 1964. Zhiguan 44/27a).

“This emperor [of Cathay] may dispend as much as he will without estimation; for he not dispendeth ne maketh no money but of leather imprinted or of paper. And of that money is some of greater price and some of less price, after the diversity of his statutes. And when that money hath run long that it beginneth to waste, then men bear it to the emperor’s treasury and then they take new money for the old. And that money goeth throughout all the country and throughout all his provinces, for there and beyond them they make no money neither of gold nor of silver; and therefore he may dispend enough, and outrageously. And of gold and silver that men bear in his country he maketh cylours, pillars and pavements in his palace, and other diverse things what him liketh.”

(The Travels of Sir John Mandeville by Sir John Mandeville (1300-1399?), chapt. XXV)

Northern Song bronze coins

Northern Song bronze coins

Publications

  • „Die finanzpolitische Bezugnahme des songzeitlichen Staates (960 – ca. 1100) auf den Reichtum seiner Gesellschaft – unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Reformperiode unter Wang Anshi“ (The Finance Political Reference of the Song Government to the Wealth of its Society, under Particular Consideration of the Reform Period under Wang Anshi), Oriens Extremus 44 (2003/04), S. 179–210.
  • „Hainans politische und ökonomische Anbindung an das Festland während der Song-Dynastie“ (Hainan’s Political and Economic Connection to the Chinese Mainland during the Song Dynasty), Roderich Ptak, Claudine Salmon (Hrsg.), Politik, Wirtschaft und Geschichte Hainans (Konferenzband). Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz 2001. S. 35–81.
  • The Emporium of the World: Maritime Quanzhou , 1000–1400. Leiden, Boston, Köln: E. J. Brill 2001. Sinica Leidensia 49. 449 pages.
  • „The Role of Metals and the Impact of the Introduction of Huizi Paper Notes in Quanzhou on the Development of Maritime Trade during the Song Period”, Leiden: E. J. Brill 2001. Pp. 95–176. Sinica Leidensia 49.
  • „Quanzhou’s Maritime Trade and the Indian Ocean in Ancient Times”, in Himanshu P. Ray (ed.), Archaeology of Seafaring: the Indian Ocean in the Ancient Period. Indian Council of Historical Research. New Delhi: 1999. S. 245–264.
  • „Quanzhou’s Early Overseas Trade: Local Politico-Economic Particulars During its Period of Independence”, Journal of Song Yuan Studies 29 (1999), pp. 1–41.
  • „The Maritime Trade of Quanzhou from the 9th through the 13th Centuries”, Stephan Conermann (Hrsg.), Asien und Afrika. Der Indische Ozean in historischer Perspektive. Hamburg: E.B.-Verlag 1998. S. 89–108.
  • „The Overseas Trade of Quanzhou in the Song Dynasty”, IIAS-Newsletter 9 (1996), p. 45.

in preparation:

  • „Der Gelbe Fluss (Huanghe): Bewältigung und Verwaltung der Fluten vor 1000 Jahren“ (The Yellow River: The managing the floods 1000 years ago).

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